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Published On: Mon, Jul 1st, 2019

Ex-Somali Republic and United States

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By. ANIIS A. ESSA

Prior to the Ogaden War, Somalia had been allied with the Soviet Union, and its relations with the United States were strained.  Largely because the Soviet Union sided with Ethiopia in the Ogaden War, a United States-Somali rapprochement began in the 1977 and culminated in a Military access agreement in 1980. In August 1980, Washington and Mogadisho signed an agreement whereby,  that permitted the United States to use navel ports and airfields at Berbera, Kismayo, and Mogadisho, in exchange for MILITARY AND ECONOMIC AID, AND $40 MILLION OVER NEXT TWO YEARS. 

  The United States subsequently refurbished facilities originally developed by the Soviet Union at the Gulf of Aden port of BERBERA.  The United States Rapid Deployment Force used BERBERA AS A BASE FOR ITS OPERATION BRIGHT STAR EXERCISES IN 1981, and American military advisers were permanently stationed there one year later in 1982. Over the next few years, The United States increased its military assistance to Somalia, for example, equipment sales and gifts amounted to $14.3 million, in 1983 United States military aid totaled $21.2 million, in 1984 $24.3 million, in 1985 $ 80 million, a large amount of which included air transport.  In 1986 $40 million and in 1987 approximately $37.1 million. The Base at Berbera was used in the fall of 1990 during the deployment of personal and supplies to SAUDI ARABIA in preparation for the Persian Gulf War.

After the SOMALI NATIONAL MOVEMENT THE “SNM” launched armed attacks in Northern Somalia today Somaliland Republic in late May 1988, the Untied States provided Somalia with $1.4 million worth of military equipment, which consisted of 1200 M16 automatic rifles and 2 Million round s of M16 ammunition, 300,000 rounds of 30-caliber ammunition, and 500,000 rounds of 50-caliber ammunition.  Additionally, the Department of Defense donated $1 million for a 220 bed hospital, which operated in Berbera to help victims of the conflict.

United States military aid to Somalia diminished significantly after it become clear that Siad Barre’s regime had committed human rights violations against civilian populations in Northern Somalia, Today Somaliland Republic.  Nevertheless, according to official United States statements, the United States maintained s security assistance program in Somalia largely to protect its access to Somalia air and port facilities, strengthen the Somalis’ ability to maintain military equipment of United States origin, encourage national reconciliation through greater concern for human rights and civil liberties, military restraint, and political accommodation with the opposition elements, and support private sector revitalization.  Until Siad Barre’s downfall, United States military aid to Somalia consisted primarily of technical assistance and training.

Starting in 1978, Italy furnished more military aid to Somalia than any other Western country, by 1980 Italian exports to Somalia amounted to $124 million.  The Federal Republic of Germany “ West Germany”, specialized in aid to the Somali police and security services.  Bonn also trained about 60 Somali Army special forces personnel and maintained a technical assistance mission with the police air wing .

Since the mid-1980, there had been numerous unconfirmed reports of Somalia-South African Military cooperation.  The relationship supposedly began on December 18, 1984, WHEN SOUTH AFRICAN FOREIGN MINISTER  ROELOF “PIK” BOTHA, Visited Somalia and conducted discussions with Siad Barre.   The two leaders reportedly signed a secret communique granting South African Airways landing rights in Somalia and the South African navy access to the port of Kismayo and Berbera.  It was said that Somalia also greed to sell South Africa eight MIG-21 fighters.  In exchange, South Africa reportedly promised to provide Somalia with Soviet-build equipment , including tanks, captured in Angola and Mozambique.  South Africa supposedly arranged to ship spare parts and ammunition for the HAWKER HUNTER AIRCARFT SUPPLIED TO SOMALIA BY THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES, AND TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE SALARIES OF TEN FORMER RHODESION AIR FORCE POLITS WHO ALREADY WERE IN SOMALIA.

Helping to train Somali pilots and technicians and flying combat mission in North to kill civilian people from Somaliland.  Despite Siad Barre repeated denials of a military link with South Africa,  Rumors of Somali-South African alliance continued to surface until the downfall of Siad Barre’s Regime.

The outbreak of SNM in mid 1988 and the drying up of traditional sources of foreign military assistance persuaded Siad Barre to seek arms from LIBYA.  On October 7, 1988 A LIBYANB ARB AIRLINES JET REPORTED DELIVERED NERVE GAS TO SOMALIA.   It was widely reported that Libya had acquired the chemical weapons from IRAN.  Siad Barre denied  these charges.  But he lied to the world.  Libya also supplied to Siad Barre’ Regime small amounts of conventional military weapons and ammunition. By early 1989 it was evident that the Somali Government’s strategy of using Libyan-supplied weapons to defeat  the SNM had failed.

In 1989, Under Somalian people in Washington dc and congressional pressure, the administration of President George Bush terminated military aid to Somalia, although it continued to provide food assistance.  In 1990 Washington revealed that Siad Barre’s Regime had been in default on loan repayments for more than a year.  There fore under the terms of the Brook Amendment, this meant that Somalia was ineligible to receive any further United States Aid.   During the height of the fighting in Mogadisho and in North.  In January 1991, the United States closed its embassy and evacuated all its personnel from the Somalia

In January 1991, a bloody rebellion that had begun in 1988 finally succeeded in ending the 21 years authoritarian regime of President Siad Barre.  The civil war had taken more than 150,000 civilian lives  and had left the many towns were in ruins and hundreds of thousands of Somalia had fled to neighboring countries as refugees.

In May 18 1991 North of Somalia declared an Independent Republic of Somaliland in the region that had constituted the British Somaliland before independence and unification with the former colony of Italian Somaliland in 1960.

ANIIS A. ESSA

SOMALILAND ADVOCACY GROUP

WASHINGTON DC….USA

About the Author

- Arraale Mohamoud Jama Freelance Journalist and Human Rights Activist Arraale, is a 20 year experience as a professional Journalist and human rights activist Over the years, worked for the major News Papers in Somaliland as a reporter, editor and contributor. 2008 established website Araweelo News Network, he currently runs a web site based in Somaliland. who is the specializes in the investigation and reporting on issues relating to human rights, democracy, and good governance. contact: Info@araweelonews.com jaamac132@gmail.com Send an SMS or MMS to + 252 63 442 5380 WhatsApp + 252 65 910 7347.

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Araweelo is an Associated Network News, The most trusted source for news & Political,investigator report,Human Rights Issues,Educations,Social and Democracy ,Latest News Horn of Africa. runs Arraale Mohamoud Jama Freelance Journalist and Human Rights Activist based in Somaliland.

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